Specific Agents: 

Midazolam (Versed)

Diazepam (Valium)


  • Most widely used drugs for Sedation.


  • Probably work in the limbic system and amygdala of the brain, where fear, anxiety and apprehension arise.


  • Attach to receptor sites in the cerebral cortex, enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and inhibiting excitatory impulses:  anxiolysis…reduction of anxiety, amnesiac…reduces ability to recall events surrounding administration, anti-convulsive …stops seizures, skeletal muscle relaxation, sedative …hypnotic in large doses.


  • Patients who chronically take cimetidine (Tagamet) or ranitidine (Zantac) are especially susceptible to benzodiazepine overdose…these H-2 blocking drugs may dramatically increase the sedative effect of even small doses of benzodiazepines.


  • Narcotics (when given in conjunction with benzodiazepines are great potentiators of respiratory depression (great synergistic effect).



Flumazenil (Romazicon)


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